# What is Theorem proving

##### Introduction

Theorem proving is an essential area of research within automated reasoning, with its ability to prove mathematical theorems automatically being of immense significance in various domains. Essentially, theorem proving is a branch of automated reasoning where computers and algorithms can prove mathematical theorems automatically, thereby making the process faster, more efficient, and less prone to errors than manual methods.

This field has gained significant traction with the incredible advancements in machine learning, cognitive computing, and artificial intelligence in the past few years. Theorem proving is a vital tool in fields such as computer science, mathematics, physics, engineering, and artificial intelligence. This article seeks to explain the basics of theorem proving for those seeking to learn more about this fascinating field.

##### What is Theorem Proving?

To put it in simple terms, theorem proving is the ability of computers to prove theorems automatically using formal logic. It is a sub-discipline of Automated Reasoning, a branch of artificial intelligence whose primary task is to automatically prove or disprove mathematical statements and propositions. Theorem proving has significant advantages over manual methods of proving a theorem.

In contrast to manual proof methods that involve a complex series of steps, theorem proving automates the entire process. Automated reasoning methods are not only faster but also more efficient and require minimal human intervention. Theorem proving algorithms are based on formal logic, and they can be used to determine the correctness of logical statements quickly.

Theorem proving has numerous applications. Its applications extend to various fields such as computer science and mathematics, and it plays an essential role in the optimization of complex systems. In computer science, theorem proving is commonly used to verify the correctness of algorithms and software systems. In mathematics, theorem proving helps Automating the tedious process of mathematical proofs.

##### Components of Theorem Proving

There are multiple components to theorem proving. Each component has a vital role in the overall theorem proving process. These components include:

• Logic: The logic used in theorem proving determines the strength of the statement or proposition to be proved. For example, the first-order logic can handle statements involving natural numbers and sets, while second-order logic can handle statements involving natural numbers and sets and second-order statements as well.
• Inference Engine: This component is responsible for processing the rules of inference that are used to create new statements or propositions. Inference engines implement various rules such as Modus Ponens (If A implies B and A is true, then B is true) and resolution
• Axioms: These are assumed statements or propositions that are assumed to be true and are used to build the theorem. Axioms are the building blocks of mathematical theorems, and are assumed to be true or self-evident.
• Lemmas: These are intermediate results that are assumed to be true, and are essential in proving the final result.

Theorem proving is a powerful technology that has many advantages over traditional methods of proof. These benefits include the following:

• Automated Process: Theorem proving is an automated process that is faster and more efficient than manual proof methods.
• Optimization: Theorem proving can help optimize complex systems that are prone to errors. By identifying and fixing errors automatically, theorem proving helps improve the effectiveness and efficiency of these systems.
• Correctness: Theorem proving can prove the correctness of a system or algorithm and uncover errors that may be hard to identify through manual methods.
##### Theorem Proving Techniques

There are multiple techniques used in theorem proving that help optimize the process. These techniques include:

• Backward Chaining: This is a technique where the theorem prover starts by assuming the goal and then moves backward trying to derive the prerequisites of the goal. This technique is widely used in automated reasoning where the theorem to be proved is known beforehand.
• Forward chaining: This is a technique where the theorem prover starts with the axioms and moves forward trying to find a conclusion that substantiates the hypothesis. In this method, the system generates all possible conclusions based on the axioms until it exhausts all the possibilities and ultimately settles on the correct conclusion.
• Resolution: In this technique, the theorem prover attempts to prove a theorem using contradiction. It does this by assuming the negation of the conjecture and then attempts to prove it is false. The theorem is considered to be true if the assumption is proved to be false.
##### Challenges of Theorem Proving

Theorem proving is not without its challenges. Here are some of the factors that make the task harder:

• Complexity: Theorem proving can be a complex process, particularly when the statements involved are long and complex.
• Scalability: Theorem proving is challenging to scale, especially if the number of axioms and lemmas increases, making it hard to maintain or even optimize its performance.
• Ambiguity: The natural language used to state theorems can sometimes be ambiguous. This poses a challenge when translating the language into a formal language that the theorem prover can process and understand.
##### Conclusion

In conclusion, theorem proving is an essential area in automated reasoning that has numerous applications in various fields. It is a powerful technology that can help optimize complex systems, prove the correctness of algorithms and software, and automate the tedious process of mathematical proofs. Although the process has its challenges, recent advancements in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cognitive computing have made it possible to overcome these. As such, theorem proving remains a promising area of research for the future.