- Tabular data
- Tag recommendation
- Taskonomy
- Temporal convolutional networks
- Temporal difference learning
- Tensor decomposition
- Tensor product networks
- TensorBoard
- TensorFlow
- Text classification
- Text generation
- Text mining
- Theano
- Theorem proving
- Threshold-based models
- Time series analysis
- Time series forecasting
- Topic modeling
- Topological data analysis
- Traceability
- Trajectory planning
- Transfer entropy
- Transfer entropy estimation
- Transfer learning
- Transfer reinforcement learning
- Tree-based models
- Triplet loss
- Tsetlin machine
- Turing test

# What is Temporal difference learning

##### Temporal Difference Learning

Temporal Difference (TD) learning is one of the most widely-used reinforcement learning algorithms. TD learning is based on the concept of temporal differences, which refers to the differences between the expected reward and the actual reward received by an agent at a given time step. TD learning uses this difference to update the estimate of the expected reward, which is used by the agent to select actions that maximize its cumulative reward over time.

TD learning is a type of online learning. In online learning, the agent receives feedback (in the form of a reward signal) after each action it takes. The agent can use this feedback to update its estimate of the expected reward for each state-action pair. TD learning is known as a model-free learning algorithm because it does not require a model of the environment that the agent is interacting with. Rather, TD learning directly estimates the value function, which is the expected cumulative reward from a given state.

##### The TD Learning Algorithm

The TD learning algorithm updates the value of state s at time t as follows:

**V(s_t) = V(s_t) + alpha * (r_t+1 + gamma * V(s_t+1) - V(s_t))**

where alpha is the learning rate, gamma is the discount factor, r_t+1 is the reward received at time t+1, V(s_t+1) is the estimated value of state s_t+1, and V(s_t) is the estimated value of state s_t. The term r_t+1 + gamma * V(s_t+1) - V(s_t) is the temporal difference, which represents the difference between the expected reward and the actual reward received by the agent at time t.

The above update rule is known as Sarsa, which stands for State-Action-Reward-State-Action. Sarsa is a TD control algorithm, which means that it is used to compute the optimal policy for a given environment. The optimal policy is the one that maximizes the expected cumulative reward over time. Sarsa can be used to learn both deterministic and stochastic policies.

Another popular TD control algorithm is Q-learning. Q-learning is similar to Sarsa, but instead of directly estimating the value function, it estimates the action value function, which is the expected cumulative reward from a given state-action pair. The Q-learning update rule is given as follows:

**Q(s_t, a_t) = Q(s_t, a_t) + alpha * (r_t+1 + gamma * max_a Q(s_t+1, a) - Q(s_t, a_t))**

where Q(s_t, a_t) is the estimated action value of state action pair (s_t, a_t), max_a Q(s_t+1, a) is the maximum estimated action value over all actions a in state s_t+1, and Q(s_t, a_t) is the estimated action value of state action pair (s_t, a_t). Q-learning is an off-policy algorithm, which means that it estimates the value of the optimal policy, even if the agent is following a different (e.g. exploratory) policy.

##### The Pros and Cons of TD Learning

TD learning has several advantages over other reinforcement learning algorithms, such as Monte Carlo methods and Dynamic Programming. One advantage is that TD learning can learn online, which means that it can update its estimate of the value function after every time step. This makes TD learning computationally efficient and suitable for real-time learning applications.

Another advantage of TD learning is that it is a model-free algorithm. This means that it does not require a model of the environment that the agent is interacting with. Instead, it directly estimates the value function using the feedback received in the form of rewards from the environment. This makes the algorithm more robust and suitable for real-world applications where the true model of the environment may be unknown or difficult to obtain.

However, TD learning also has some limitations. One limitation is that it can suffer from high variance in the estimate of the value function. This is due to the fact that TD learning updates the estimate of the value function based on a single sample of the reward received. This can lead to large swings in the value estimates and can be detrimental to learning stability.

Another limitation is that TD learning is sensitive to the choice of the learning rate and the discount factor. The learning rate determines how much weight is given to the new information received from the environment, while the discount factor determines the relative importance of future rewards compared to immediate rewards. Choosing the right values for these parameters is crucial for good performance in TD learning.

##### Applications of TD Learning

TD learning has found numerous applications in various fields, including video game AI, robotics, and finance. In video game AI, TD learning has been used to create AI agents that can learn to play complex games, such as chess and Go. These agents use TD learning to estimate the value function or the action value function and select actions that lead to the highest expected cumulative reward.

In robotics, TD learning has been used to create autonomous robots that can learn to perform complex tasks, such as grasping and manipulation. These robots use TD learning to estimate the value function or the action value function and select actions that lead to the highest expected cumulative reward. TD learning has also been used to create controllers for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that can learn to navigate and avoid obstacles in complex environments.

In finance, TD learning has been used to create algorithmic trading systems that can learn to make profitable trades in the stock market. These systems use TD learning to estimate the value of different trading strategies and select strategies that lead to the highest expected cumulative profit.

##### Conclusion

TD learning is a powerful and widely-used reinforcement learning algorithm. It is based on the concept of temporal differences, which refers to the differences between the expected reward and the actual reward received by an agent at a given time step. TD learning uses this difference to update the estimate of the expected reward, which is used by the agent to select actions that maximize its cumulative reward over time. TD learning is a model-free algorithm and can learn online. It has found numerous applications in various fields, including video game AI, robotics, and finance.